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We will only look at one standard for encoding structured documents: Extensible Markup Language or XML , which is currently the most widely used such standard. We will not cover the specifics that distinguish XML from other types of markup such as HTML and SGML. But most of what we say in this chapter is applicable to markup languages in general.

In the context of information retrieval, we are only interested in XML as a language for encoding text and documents. A perhaps more widespread use of XML is to encode non-text data. For example, we may want to export data in XML format from an enterprise resource planning system and then read them into an analytics program to produce graphs for a presentation. This type of application of XML is called data-centric because numerical and non-text attribute-value data dominate and text is usually a small fraction of the overall data. Most data-centric XML is stored in databases - in contrast to the inverted index-based methods for text-centric XML that we present in this chapter.

We call XML retrieval structured retrieval in this chapter. Some researchers prefer the term semistructured retrieval to distinguish XML retrieval from database querying. We have adopted the terminology that is widespread in the XML retrieval community. For instance, the standard way of referring to XML queries is structured queries , not semistructured queries . The term structured retrieval is rarely used for database querying and it always refers to XML retrieval in this book.

There is a second type of information retrieval problem that is intermediate between unstructured retrieval and querying a relational database: parametric and zone search, which we discussed in Section Bandolino Rainna Womens 3NUydo
(page). In the data model of parametric and zone search, there are parametric fields (relational attributes like date or file-size) and zones - text attributes that each take a chunk of unstructured text as value, e.g., author and title in Figure Naturalizer Michelle Womens 9rS63YR
(page). The data model is flat, that is, there is no nesting of attributes. The number of attributes is small. In contrast, XML documents have the more complex tree structure that we see in Figure 10.2 in which attributes are nested. The number of attributes and nodes is greater than in parametric and zone search.

After presenting the basic concepts of XML in Section BEARPAW Roxie Womens Ob88WngW8C
, this chapter first discusses the challenges we face in XML retrieval (Section 10.2 ). Next we describe a vector space model for XML retrieval (Section Auditions Kelly Womens PIXT3
). Section Corkys Dance Womens yHCtLvX4zV
presents INEX, a shared task evaluation that has been held for a number of years and currently is the most important venue for XML retrieval research. We discuss the differences between data-centric and text-centric approaches to XML in Section 10.5 .

New in version 0.6.

the charset of the response.

Close the wrapped response if possible. You can also use the object in a with statement which will automatically close it.

New in version 0.9: Can now be used in a with statement.

A descriptor that calls get_data() and set_data() . This should not be used and will eventually get deprecated.

the default mimetype if none is provided.

the default status if none is provided.

Delete a cookie. Fails silently if key doesn’t exist.

Enforce that the WSGI response is a response object of the current type. Werkzeug will use the BaseResponse internally in many situations like the exceptions. If you call get_response() on an exception you will get back a regular BaseResponse object, even if you are using a custom subclass.

This method can enforce a given response type, and it will also convert arbitrary WSGI callables into response objects if an environ is provided:

This is especially useful if you want to post-process responses in the main dispatcher and use functionality provided by your subclass.

Keep in mind that this will modify response objects in place if possible!

Call this method if you want to make your response object ready for being pickled. This buffers the generator if there is one. It will also set the Content-Length header to the length of the body.

Changed in version 0.6: The header is now set.

Create a new response object from an application output. This works best if you pass it an application that returns a generator all the time. Sometimes applications may use the write() callable returned by the start_response function. This tries to resolve such edge cases automatically. But if you don’t get the expected output you should set buffered to True which enforces buffering.

Returns the application iterator for the given environ. Depending on the request method and the current status code the return value might be an empty response rather than the one from the response.

If the request method is HEAD or the status code is in a range where the HTTP specification requires an empty response, an empty iterable is returned.

New in version 0.6.

The string representation of the request body. Whenever you call this property the request iterable is encoded and flattened. This can lead to unwanted behavior if you stream big data.

This behavior can be disabled by setting implicit_sequence_conversion to False .

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